PACO

Cycling and walking to school

Abstract

Obesity in young people is a serious problem in the society. Low physical activity levels and a high sedentary time unhealthy lifestyles among children and adolescents. To find opportunities where young people might adquire active behaviour is necessary. The mode of commuting to school is a behavior performed daily by young people at least twice during the way to and from school. This behavior can be performed using active modes, which means walking or cycling mainly, which has several health implications among youth. Young people who walk or cycle to school have higher physical activity levels, better cardiorespiratory fitness and there is evidence about a better academic performance compared to those who use motorized or passive modes of commuting. In the other hand, it is necessary to emphasize the socio-environmental effect of using modes of commuting that no produce pollution and that allow to interact with their peers.

The current project pretends to study more deeply the knowledge of active commuting to school and plans three aims: a) to analyze the patterns of the mode of commuting to school in Spanish youth the last two decades, b) to design and study the validity, reliability and feasibility of two questionnaires about mode of commuting to school and correlated variables and of two technological tools mobile-based targeted in parents and youth to promote active commuting, and lastly, c) to study the feasibility at school-setting of the assessment protocol to evaluate mode of commuting to school in order to be retorted in future research and to implement and assess the effect of school-based interventions to promote walking and cycling to school in the cities of Granada, Jaén and Valencia. The results of the current project will allow to: a) to know the mode of commuting to school of 24615 children and 15845 adolescents coming from the Spanish area and to analyze the evolution of this behavior in the last two decades; b) to elaborate valid, reliable and feasible tools to assess the mode of commuting to school and its correlates in order to know which correlates are the most relevant on active commuting to school and consequently, to be able to design effective intervention programs; likewise, to create two technological mobile-based tools to work with parents and youth the promotion of active commuting, and c) to plan a feasible assessment protocol for the mode of commuting at school-settings that may be replicate in future researching and to implement several schoolbased intervention programs at schools to promote walking and cycling to school working with parents and children and to analyze its effects.

The provided results in the current project will offer broad and entire view of the behaviour of active commuting to school that does not exist nowadays in the scientific literature. These results will orienter researchers and policy makers about future studies and intervention intiatives respectively, that may be succesull on promotion active commuting to school behaviours and may be a public health strategy for benefing a society with higher health levels and, in general, higher quality of life.

Status

Analysis of tools for assessment and intervention.

Funding

This study is funded by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (REF: DEP2016-75598-R) logo-fin-brain

Publications

  • 1.) Villa-González E, Rodríguez-López C, Huertas-Delgado FJ, Tercedor P, Ruiz JR, Chillón P. Personal and Environmental Factors Are Associated with Active Commuting to School in Spanish Children. Revista de Psicología del Deporte 2012, 21(2): 343-349. http://www.rpd-online.com/article/viewFile/1148/884.
  • 2.) Hermoso S, Pérez-García M, Chillón P, Ruiz JR. Test-retest reliability of questionnaire on the mode of commuting to and from school among children. Gaceta Sanitaria 2013, 27(2):188-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22795441
  • 3.) Rodríguez-López C, Villa-González E, Pérez-López IJ, Delgado-Fernández M, Ruiz JR, Chillón P. Family factors influence active commuting to school in Spanish children. Nutr Hosp. 2013; 28 (3):756-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848100
  • 4.) Herrador-Colmenero M, Pérez-García M, Ruiz JR, Chillón P. Assessing modes and frequency of commuting to school in youngsters: a systematic review. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2014; 26: 291-341. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24722834
  • 5.) Segura JM, Herrador-Colmenero M, Martínez-Téllez B, Chillón P. Efecto de la precipitación y el periodo estacional sobre los patrones de desplazamiento al centro educativo en niños y adolescentes de Granada. Nutrición Hospitalaria. 2014, 31 (3); 1264-1272. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25726221
  • 6.) Villa-Gónzalez E, Pérez-López IJ, Ruiz JR, Delgado-Fernández M, Chillón P. Active commuting to school; a proposal of a school-based intervention. Tandem. 2014, (46) 24-32. http://tandem.grao.com/revistas/tandem/046-la-inactividad-fisica-en-escolares/el-desplazamiento-activo-al-colegio-una-propuesta-de-intervencion-escolar
  • 7.) Villa-González E, Ruiz JR, Chillón P. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Helath. 2015; 12 (9):10362-73. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26322487
  • 8.) Villa-González E, Ruiz JR, Ward DS, Chillón P. Effectiveness of an active commuting school-based intervention at 6-month follow-up. Eur J Public Health. 2015. In press. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578663
  • 9.) Villa-González E, Ruiz JR, Chillón P. Recommendations to implement quality interventions to promote active commuting to school. Retos. 2016. In press. http://recyt.fecyt.es/index.php/retos/article/view/40068
  • 10.) Villa-González, Emilio; Rodríguez-López, C; Barranco-Ruiz, Y; Cabezas, L; Chillón, P. Evaluating of the agreement between two methods (GIS in route and straight line vs Google MapsTM) to determine the distance of the active commuting to school in schoolchildren. Nutr Hosp. 2016. In press.
  • 11.)Rodríguez-López C, Salas-Fariña ZM, Villa-González E, Borges-Cosic M, Herrador-Colmenero M, Medina-Casaubón J, Ortega FB, Chillón P (2016). The threshold distance associated with walking from home to school. Accepted for publication in Health Education & Behavior.
  • 12.)Mora-Gonzalez J, Rodríguez-López C, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Herrador Colmenero M, Esteban-Cornejo I, Huertas-Delgado FJ, Ardoy DN, Ortega FB, Chillón P. Active commuting to school was inversely associated with academic archievement in primary but not secondary school students. Acta Paediatr. 2017 Feb;106(2):334-340. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apa.13679/epdf
  • 13.)Huertas-Delgado, F.J., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Villa-González, E., Aranda-Balboa, M.J., Caceres, V., Mandic, S., Chillon, P. Parental Perceptions of Barriers to Active Commuting to School in Spanish Children and Adolescents. European Journal of Public Health, 2017, 1 (6).
  • 14.)Villa-González E, Ruiz JR, Mendoza JA, Chillón P. Effects of a school-based intervention on active commuting to school and health-related fitness.BMC Public Health. 2017 Jan 5;17(1):20. Pudmed
  • 15.)Villa-González E, Rodriguez-López C, Barranco-Ruiz YM, Cabezas Luis F, Palma Chillón. Evaluating of the agreement between two methods to determine the distance of the active commuting to school in schoolchildren. Nutrición Hospitalaria. 33 - 3, pp. 1 - 6. Arán, 25/02/2016. ISSN 0212-1611
  • 16.) Herrador-Colmenero,M, Villa-Gónzalez, E, Chillón,P.Children who commute to school unaccompanied have greatrer autonomy and perceptions of safety. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2017. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/apa.14047/epdf
  • 17.) Huertas-Delgado, F.J., Chillon, P., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, F., Villa-González, E. Which Are the Main Parental Barriers to Active Commuting to School in Ecuador? Journal of Transport & Health, 2017, 5, 75-76. https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2214140517303845/1-s2.0-S2214140517303845-main.pdf?_tid=b7763be2-a359-11e7-83c9-00000aacb362&acdnat=1506499318_ffe72e816a2b5f10ecf07ddca37fb246
  • 18.) V -Villa-González, E., Chillon, P., Huertas-Deglado, F.J., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Rodríguez-López, C., Barranco-Ruiz, Y. Association Between Active Commuting to School and Sleep Duration in Ecuadorian Youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2017, 49 (5S), 893. https://insights.ovid.com/medicine-science-sports-exercise/mespex/2017/05/001/association-active-commuting-school-sleep-duration/2619/00005768
  • 19.) Herrador-Colmenero M, Harrison F, Villa-González E, Rodríguez-López C, Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Jones AP, Chillón P. Longitudinal associations between weather, season, and mode of commuting to school among Spanish youths. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2018 Jul 19.
  • 20.) Villa-González, E., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Evenson, K. R., & Chillón, P. (2018). Systematic review of interventions for promoting active school transport. Preventive medicine, 111, 115-134.
  • 21.) Chillón, P., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Migueles, J. H., Cabanas-Sánchez, V., Fernández-Santos, J. R., Veiga, Ó. L., & Castro-Piñero, J. (2017). Convergent validation of a questionnaire to assess the mode and frequency of commuting to and from school. Scandinavian journal of public health, 45(6), 612-620. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30747037
  • 22.) Rodríguez-Rodríguez, F., Jara, O. P., Kuthe, N. M., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Ramírez-Vélez, R., & Chillón, P. (2019). Influence of distance, area, and cultural context in active commuting: Continental and insular children. PloS one, 14(3), e0213159. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30835757
  • 23.) Villa-González, E., Huertas-Delgado, F. J., Chillón, P., Ramírez-Vélez, R., & Barranco-Ruiz, Y. (2019). Associations between active commuting to school, sleep duration, and breakfast consumption in Ecuadorian young people. BMC public health, 19(1), 85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30658708
  • 24.) Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Guevara-Paz, A., Ramírez-Vélez, R., Chillón, P., & Villa-González, E. (2018). Mode of commuting to school and its association with physical activity and sedentary habits in young Ecuadorian students. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(12), 2704. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30513629
  • 25.) Ferri-García, R., Fernández-Luna, J. M., Rodríguez-López, C., & Chillón, P. (2019). Data mining techniques to analyze the factors influencing active commuting to school. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 1-16. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15568318.2018.1547465
  • 26.) Chica-Olmo, J., Rodríguez-López, C., & Chillón, P. (2018). Effect of distance from home to school and spatial dependence between homes on mode of commuting to school. Journal of transport geography, 72, 1-12. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966692316307013
  • 26.) Chica-Olmo, J., Rodríguez-López, C., & Chillón, P. (2018). Effect of distance from home to school and spatial dependence between homes on mode of commuting to school. Journal of transport geography, 72, 1-12. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0966692316307013
  • 27.) Huertas-Delgado, F.J., Molina-García, J., Van Dyck, D., Chillón, P. A questionnaire to assess parental perception of barriers towards active commting to school (PABACS): Reliability and validity. Journal of Transport & Health. 2019. 12, 97-104. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140518305152
  • 28.) Huertas-Delgado, F.J., Chillon, P., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Rodríguez.-Rodríguez, F., Villa-González. Parental perceived barriers to active comuting to school in ecuadorian youth. Journal of Transport Health, 2018, 10, 290-296. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140518301130
  • 29.) Palma, X., Chillón P.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, F., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Huertas-Delgado, F.J. Perceived parental barriers towards active commuting to school in Chilean children and adolescents of Valparaiso, International Journal of Sustainable Transport. 2019, 1, 1-8. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15568318.2019.1578840?journalCode=ujst20
  • 30.) Herrador-Colmenero, M., Escabias, M., Ortega, F. B., McDonald, N. C., & Chillón, P. (2019). Mode of Commuting TO and FROM School: A Similar or Different Pattern?. Sustainability, 11(4), 1026. https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/4/1026
  • 31.) Muntaner-Mas, A., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Borràs, P. A., & Chillón, P. (2018). Physical activity, but not active commuting to school, is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels in young people. Journal of Transport & Health, 10, 297-303. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140517307351
  • 32.) Burgueño, R., González-Cutre, D., Sevil-Serrano, J., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Segura-Díaz, J. M., Medina-Casaubón, J., & Chillón, P. (2019). Understanding the motivational processes involved in adolescents’ active commuting behaviour: Development and validation of the Behavioural Regulation in Active Commuting to and from School (BR-ACS) Questionnaire. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 62, 615-625. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1369847818304613
  • 33.) Burgueño, R., González-Cutre, D., Sevil-Serrano, J., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Segura-Díaz, J. M., Medina-Casaubón, J., & Chillón, P. (2020). Psychometric properties of the teachers’, parents’ and peers’ versions of the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale for Active Commuting to and from School (PASS-ACS) in children and adolescents. Travel behaviour and society, 20, 322-330. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214367X20301666
  • 34.) Burgueño, R., González-Cutre, D., Sevil-Serrano, J., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Segura-Díaz, J. M., Medina-Casaubón, J., & Chillón, P. (2020). Validation of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Active Commuting to and from School (BPNS-ACS) scale in Spanish young people. Journal of Transport & Health, 16, 100825. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214140519300581
  • 35.) Segura-Diaz, J. M., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Saucedo-Araujo, R.G., Aranda-Balboa, M.J., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Migueles, J.H., Saint-Maurice, P.F., Ortega-Porcel, F.B., Welk, G., Herrador-Colmenero, M., Chillon, P., & Villa-Gonzalez, E. (2020). Feasibility and Reliability of the Spanish version of the Youth Activity Profile questionnaire (YAP-Spain) in children and adolescents. Journal of Sports Science. http://www.medsci.cn/sci/show_paper.asp?id=6ea1f11e585a6224
  • 36.) Segura-Díaz, J. M., Rojas-Jiménez, Á., Barranco-Ruiz, Y., Murillo-Pardo, B., Saucedo-Araujo, R. G., Aranda-Balboa, M. J., ... & Chillón, P. (2020). Feasibility and Reliability of a Questionnaire to Assess the Mode, Frequency, Distance and Time of Commuting to and from School: the PACO Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(14), 5039. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/14/5039

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